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不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(173)  

2017-06-11 17:31:19|  分类: 趣味建筑学 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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为了不头疼而扭曲

    研究指出,人的大脑适应了自然界的图形,如果建筑物偏离了自然构成图像,识别视觉图像会使大脑消耗更多的氧。重复、规整几何形状的建筑,会使你头疼甚至发疯。
    因此,建筑需要流畅、自然,下面这些就是为了不头疼的流畅建筑。
不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (1)卡塔尔2022年世界杯场地
不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (2)加拿大世界塔
不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (3)加利福利亚苹果总部
不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (4)蒙特利尔人体(humen body)展览馆

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
  (5)巴库火焰塔

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (6)乔治亚,巴图敏水族馆

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (7)北京,soho

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (8)贝尔格莱德 旧工厂流线型改造

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (9)阿塞拜疆,文化中心

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (10)长沙人行桥

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (11)意大利 卡拉布里亚 水上建筑

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (12)哥本哈根 蓝色星球

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (13)丹麦 水上建筑

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
 (14)大连图书馆

不使人头痛发疯的建筑物——趣味建筑学(172) - liu-xiaoyao - 我的博客
(15)墨西哥 沙漏型展览馆 

附件:1.原文

It's three o'clock -- you're at work, struggling to focus during the afternoon lull. You gaze out of your office window, hoping for some relief, but instead you feel a headache coming on.

Flat gray concrete lines the streets, while windows form repetitive glassy intervals in stark brick walls. With monotonous straight lines as far as the eye can see, there's nowhere pleasant to rest your gaze. It may seem a superficial problem, but our research has found that looking at urban landscapes may actually give you a headache.
Over tens of thousands of years, the human brain evolved to effectively process scenes from the natural world. But the urban jungle poses a greater challenge for the brain, because of the repetitive patterns it contains. Mathematician Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier showed that we can think of scenes as being made up of striped patterns, of different sizes, orientations and positions, all added together. These patterns are called Fourier components.
How building design changed after 9/11
In nature, as a general rule, components with low spatial frequency (large stripes) have a high contrast and components with high frequency (small stripes) have a lower contrast. We can call this simple relationship between spatial frequency and contrast a "rule of nature". Put simply, scenes from nature have stripes that tend to cancel each other out, so that when added together no stripes appear in the image.
---------------
Hurts to look at
But this is not the case with scenes from the urban environment. Urban scenes break the rule of nature: they tend to feature regular, repetitive patterns, due to the common use of design features such as windows, staircases and railings. Regular patterns of this kind are rarely found in nature.

Striped patterns can cause seizures and headaches in much the same way as flicker does. So stripes on door mats, carpets and shirts can be a problem for people who are light-sensitive.
This has been documented since the 1980s. What is new is that we have now shown that there is also a problem from more complex images that are not obviously striped but contain regular stripes within their mathematical makeup, such as regularly spaced features of buildings.
We have also shown that the discomfort is felt by most people, not just those who are light-sensitive. And the discomfort is accompanied by changes in brain oxygenation.
We came to these conclusions by measuring the efficiency with which the brain processes images of natural and urban scenes. There are two ways of measuring efficiency; the first is to build simple computer models of the way that nerve cells compute what we see.
One model was built by Paul Hibbard (University of Essex) and Louise O'Hare (University of Lincoln), and another at the University of St Andrews by Olivier Penacchio and colleagues. Both models show that when the brain processes images that depart from the rule of nature, the activity of the nerve cells is increased, and becomes less sparsely distributed. In other words, such images take more effort for the brain to process.
-----------
For our own research, Olivier and I designed a computer program that measures how well images adhere to the rule of nature. After running the program, we found that departure from the rule of nature predicts how uncomfortable people find it to look at any given image -- whether it's an image of a building or a work of art.
We then analysed images of apartment buildings, and found that over the last 100 years, the design of buildings has been departing further and further from the rule of nature; more and more stripes appear decade by decade, making the buildings less and less comfortable to look at.
--------------
O? joy
Another way to measure the efficiency of the brain's visual processes is to measure the amount of oxygen used by the visual part of the brain, located at the back of the head. When the brain uses oxygen, it changes colour. We can track these changes by shining infrared light onto the scalp, and measuring the scattered light which bounces back off the brain and through the skull.
Typically, oxygen usage is greater when people look at uncomfortable images, such as urban scenes.
We found that the rule of nature not only predicts the levels of discomfort suggested by computer models, it also predicts how much oxygen is used by the brain. That is, our brains use more oxygen when we look at scenes which depart from the rule. Since headaches tend to be associated with excess oxygen usage, this may explain why some designs give us headaches.
People who get migraines are particularly susceptible to the discomfort from repetitive patterns; these patterns increase the use of oxygen (which in those who sufferer migraines is already abnormally high). The patterns can give rise to a headache, possibly as a result. Indeed, some individuals with migraine cannot function in certain modern offices, because the patterns bring on a headache every time they enter the building.
Trump Tower, the skyscraper and the future of urban development
Perhaps it's time for the rule of nature to be incorporated into the software that is used to design buildings and offices. Or interior designers can vary the wall designs, blinds and carpets they install, to avoid adding more stripes indoors.
Of course, some repetitive patterns are an unavoidable result of modular construction. But many stripes are there quite unnecessarily, simply as design features -- to catch the eye. Unfortunately, they may end up hitting the head, too.
(CNN)
2.机器译文
三点了,你在工作,下午的休息时间很难集中精神。你凝视着办公室的窗外,希望有所缓解,但你却感到头痛。
平坦的灰色混凝土排列在街道上,而窗户在砖墙上形成重复的玻璃间隔。只要眼睛能看到单调的直线,就没有什么好地方可以让你的目光停下来。这似乎是个表面上的问题,但是我们的研究发现,看城市风景可能会让你头疼。
几千年来,人类的大脑进化成有效地处理来自自然世界的场景。但是城市丛林给大脑带来了更大的挑战,因为它包含了重复的模式。数学家让·巴普蒂斯·约瑟夫·傅里叶表明,我们可以认为场景是由不同大小、方位和位置的条纹图案组成的,它们都是叠加在一起的。这些模式称为傅立叶组件。
9/11以后建筑设计如何改变
在自然界中,一般情况下,低空间频率(大条纹)的组件具有高对比度,高频分量(小条纹)的对比度较低。我们可以把这种空间频率和对比度的简单关系称为“自然法则”。简单地说,自然场景中的条纹往往互相抵消,所以当加在一起时,图像中没有条纹出现。
---------------
伤看
但城市环境的场景却不是这样的。城市场景打破了自然规律:它们往往具有规律性的、重复的模式,这是因为窗户、楼梯和栏杆等设计特征的共同使用。在自然界中很少发现这种规律。
条纹图案可以引起癫痫发作和头痛,就像闪烁一样。所以,门垫、地毯和衬衫上的条纹对光敏感的人来说是个问题。
这是80年代以来的记录,最新的是,我们现在已经表明,也有一个问题,从更复杂的图像,没有明显条纹,但在他们的数学构成,包括定期间隔的建筑物特征,包括规则条纹。
我们还表明,大多数人感到不适,而不仅仅是那些敏感的人。这种不适伴随着脑氧合的变化。
我们通过测量大脑处理自然和城市场景图像的效率来得出这些结论。测量效率的方法有两种:第一种是建立简单的计算机模型来计算神经细胞的计算方式。
Paul Hibbard建立的是一个模型(埃塞克斯大学)和路易丝(大学芝加哥林肯),另一个在Olivier Penacchio及其同事的圣·安驻斯大学。两种模型都表明,当大脑处理脱离自然规律的图像时,神经细胞的活动量增加,分布也变得稀疏。换句话说,这样的图像需要更多的精力来处理大脑。
-----------
为了我们自己的研究,奥利维尔和我设计了一个计算机程序,用来测量图像如何符合自然法则。在运行这个程序后,我们发现偏离自然规律的人会预测人们对任何给定图像的感觉是多么的不舒服——不管它是一栋建筑物还是一件艺术品。
然后我们分析了公寓楼的图像,发现在过去的100年里,建筑物的设计越来越偏离自然规律,越来越多的条纹出现在十年前,使建筑物看起来越来越不舒服。
--------------
O?欢乐
另一种测量大脑视觉过程效率的方法是测量位于头部后部的大脑视觉部分所使用的氧气量。当大脑使用氧气时,它会改变颜色。我们可以通过将红外线照射到头皮上来测量这些变化,并测量从大脑和头骨上反射回来的散射光。
通常情况下,人们看不舒服的图像时,比如城市场景,氧气的使用量会更大。
我们发现自然规律不仅预测了计算机模型所暗示的不适水平,还预测了大脑使用了多少氧气。也就是说,当我们观察偏离规则的场景时,我们的大脑会消耗更多的氧气。由于头痛往往与过量的氧使用有关,这也许可以解释为什么某些设计会给我们带来头痛。
偏头痛患者特别容易受到重复模式的不适;这些模式增加了氧气的使用(这在那些偏头痛患者已经高得离谱)。这些模式可能会引起头痛,可能是由于结果。事实上,有些人有偏头痛不能的功能在一定的现代化办公室,因为模式引起头痛每次他们进入大楼
川普大楼、摩天楼与城市发展的未来
也许是时候把自然规律融入到用来设计建筑物和办公室的软件中了。或室内设计师可以改变墙壁设计,百叶窗和地毯他们安装,以避免增加更多的条纹室内。
当然,有些重复模式是模块化结构不可避免的结果。但是很多条纹都是不必要的,就像设计的特征一样吸引眼球。不幸的是,他们可能也会撞到头部。
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